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Saturday, July 24, 2010

Cause of crime

"Society prepares the crime, the criminal commits it" - Henry Thomas Buckle

By the twenty-first century criminologists looked to a wide range of factors to explain why a person would commit crimes. There are certain factors in our societies, cultures (family values), system (educational, political, law-enforcement...), economy, and so on that endorse the potential of criminal activities of an individual. Usually a combination of these factors is behind a person who commits a crime.

Reasons for committing a crime include greed, anger, jealously, revenge, or pride. Some people decide to commit a crime and carefully plan everything in advance to increase gain and decrease risk. These people are making choices about their behavior; some even consider a life of crime better than a regular job—believing crime brings in greater rewards, admiration, and excitement—at least until they are caught. Others get an adrenaline rush when successfully carrying out a dangerous crime. Others commit crimes on impulse, out of rage or fear.

Root causes of committing a crime

Root causes of committing a crime
1. Poor parenting skills
Children who are neglected or abused are more likely to commit crimes later in life than others. Similarly, sexual abuse in childhood often leads these victims to become sexual predators as adults. Fatherlessness is also one of underestimated cause of crime.
2. Peer influence
A person's peer group strongly influences a decision to commit crime. For example, young boys and girls who do not fit into expected standards of academic achievement can sometimes become lost in the competition. Children of families who cannot afford adequate clothing or school supplies can also fall into the same trap. Researchers believe these youth may abandon schoolmates in favor of criminal gangs, since membership in a gang earns respect and status in a different manner. In gangs, antisocial behavior and criminal activity earns respect and street credibility.
Like society in general, criminal gangs are usually focused on material gain. Gangs, however,
resort to extortion, fraud, and theft as a means of achieving it.

Child Abuse

Child Abuse

Child abuse is defined as a variety of abnormal behaviors directed against children. It can take many forms. Child abuse in general is a psychological problem or perversion of the abuser. The abuser is referred to as the perpetrator of abuse.

    * Child abuse includes the following conditions:

          o Child sexual abuse

          o Pedophilia

          o Physical abuse

          o Child neglect

          o Emotional neglect

          o Failure to thrive

          o Munchausen by proxy syndrome

The descriptions of child abuse in the next section are intended for people who have questions about abuse, what it is, and how it may present itself. Although some cases of child abuse are obvious, many are not. Early recognition of child abuse tendencies and intervention at the point of recognition is the only way to avoid the liability of criminal prosecution.

These descriptions may help you identify abuse in its various forms. You will also find information about what you can do if you observe child abuse or if you are a parent dealing with problems that are straining your capacity to cope with the parenting experience.

If you think you are acting in an abusive way or are having a difficult time with your children or yourself as a parent, you may have identified a tendency to be abusive. These tendencies can include the following:

    * Excessive and loud verbal confrontation

    * More corporal punishment than is needed

    * Sexual feelings or feelings of anger about children that you sense are wrong and that you have not acted out yet

Tendencies can be treated more effectively than the frank abusive behavior that can evolve from a tendency. You will want to seek help early to avoid the tendency evolving into a criminal act of abuse.

If you observe child abuse in others, you are obligated to report the abuse to the police or medical authorities.

"Neglected Child"

"Neglected Child"
"Neglected Child" means a child less than 18 years of age whose physical, mental or emotional condition has been impaired or is in danger of becoming impaired as a result of the failure of the child's legal guardian to exercise a minimum degree of care in supplying the child with adequate food, clothing, shelter, or education or medical care. Neglect also occurs when the legal guardian fails to provide the child with proper supervision or guardianship by allowing the child to be harmed, or to be at risk of harm which includes when the guardian misuses drugs or alcohol him/herself.
 Observable Indicators
  • dirty skin
  • offensive body odor
  • unwashed, uncombed hair
  • tattered, under or oversized and unclean clothing
  • dressed in clothing that is inappropriate to weather or situation
  • frequently left unsupervised or alone for periods of time (Note: This is the most frequent cause of child death and should not be minimized)
 Indicators of Poor Health
  • drowsiness, easily fatigued
  • puffiness under the eyes
  • frequent untreated upper respiratory infections
  • itching, scratching, long existing skin eruptions
  • frequent diarrhea
  • bruises, lacerations or cuts that are infected
  • untreated illnesses
  • physical complaints not responded to by parent
 Indicators of Malnutrition
  • begging for or stealing food
  • frequently hungry
  • rummaging through garbage pails for food
  • gorging self, eating in large gulps
  • hoarding food
  • obesity
  • overeating junk foods
 Indicators in Infants and Toddlers
  • listlessness
  • poor responsiveness
  • does not often smile, cry, laugh, play, relate to others
  • lacks interest, curiosity
  • rocks, bangs head, sucks hair, thumb, finger,
  • tears at body
  • is overly self-stimulating, self-comforting
  • does not turn to parent for help or comfort
  • hospitalization for failure to thrive - regresses upon return to home
  • unduly over or under active for no apparent purpose
 Indicators in Children
  • cries easily when hurt even slightly
  • comes to school without breakfast
  • has no lunch or lunch money
  • needs dental care, glasses
  • falls asleep in class
  • often seems in a fog or dream world
  • comes to school early, does not want to go home
  • sees self as failure
  • troublesome at school
  • does no homework, refuses to try
  • destroys completed written work
  • destroys books, assignments and learning aids or toys
  • is withdrawn, overactive, underactive and/or lethargic (depressed)
  • is cruel to classmates
  • lies, steals from classmates, school
  • breaks objects or damages school property
  • frequently absent or late for school
 Indicators with Parents and Family
  • promises but does not follow up on recommendations
  • fails to keep appointments and/or refuses help from school or other resources
  • abuses alcohol or other drugs
  • lifestyle of relative isolation from relatives, friends
  • history of abuse or neglect as a child
  • disorganized, chaotic home life
  • history of chronic illness
  • gives impression of resignation and feeling that nothing makes much difference anyway
  • failure to provide supervision of children (This is the most frequent cause of child death and should not be minimized)
NOTE Again, any one of these indicators could be attributable to a specific life event or other trauma. A pattern of behavior is the strongest indicator of abuse and should not be ignored.

Child Sex Crimes

Child Sex Crimes

Who is Responsible?

Revulsion, fear, hatred - strong emotions - and sex crimes stir all of them, especially when the victims are children. Emotions aside, we may be the authors of our own misfortune.
Let's first look at our families:
  • Single-parent families are increasingly prevalent; adult relationships are more short-term and superficial.
  • Both parents in two-parent families often hold down full-time jobs. During the short period when they are home, they are often too tired or stressed to involve themselves with their children.
  • Children as young as two are put into daycare, followed up by baby sitters or indifferent surrogates.
  • Then come regular school and after-school programs.
  • Less fortunate children become latch-key kids, responsible for their own entertainment, maturation, and meals.
Although many parents seem willing to outsource responsibility for upbringing, more or less traditional expectations of their children stay the same. In fact, their expectations even increase. What are these expectations?
  • Resist the pervasive sexuality in the media
  • Do as I say, not as I do. Don't drink my beer or smoke my B.C. Bud.
  • Stay a kid but grow up fast and take responsibility.
  • Resist peer pressure: Stay out of porn websites and avoid the bad crowd at school.
  • Respect family values, even though we've never shown you what they are.
Consequently, many children grow up in a push-pull world awash in contradictions and hypocrisy. The same has been going on for at least two generations, perhaps longer. Consider that we've bred our child molesters and set up the pre-conditions that enable them to carry out their activities.
In spite of our warnings, children are more accessible, not just to strangers but to family acquaintances and relatives. Moreover, they have learned that authority figures and significant others are primarily to be found outside the home. Faced with indifference at home, they may seek acceptance elsewhere, even on Internet chat groups.
Children are pressured to grow up faster, and indeed they are. In many respects, they have outpaced their parents. Recall when divorce was almost unheard of? Today, long-lasting marriages have the same status.
So what has all this to do with child molestation? Maybe nothing, but it signals that permissiveness and promiscuity are socially accepted behaviors to both children and their molesters, whether strangers, family, or close acquaintances.
In the extreme, should a father returning from a sex junket in Thailand be shocked or indignant to discover his child was molested while he was away buying the services of a 12-year old? Probably his wife, the mother, isn't exactly Miss Manners herself, and she's just as shocked and indignant.
To be sure, as a society, we'd better start looking for solutions to what seems to be an epidemic. We don't even know it's an epidemic; we may just be over-reacting to a strident Nancy Grace and other media sensationalists. Probably, for a beginning, our first step may be simply to look in a mirror.

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